ꓙꓵꓻ ꓠꓲ, ꓐꓱ ꓶ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓐꓳ ꓟ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓟꓬꓱꓺ ꓓꓳꓽ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓙꓳˍ ꓢꓴ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ Thomas Aquinas ꓚꓱ,

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ꓙꓵꓻ ꓠꓲ, ꓐꓱ ꓶ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓐꓳ ꓟ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓟꓬꓱꓺ ꓓꓳꓽ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓙꓳˍ ꓢꓴ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ Thomas Aquinas ꓚꓱ,

ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ Thomas  ꓠꓬ ꓪꓴ‐ꓢ ꓟ. ꓟꓲꓽ ꓕꓳꓽ ꓶ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓐꓳ ꓟ ꓪꓴ. ꓠꓬꓲ ꓟꓬꓱꓽ ꓓꓳꓽ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓙꓳˍ ꓢꓴ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓕꓲ ꓣꓳ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓢꓯ. ꓔꓬ ꓟ ꓤꓶꓻ ꓗꓪ ꓮ ꓘꓶ. ꓛꓲ ꓢꓲꓽ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓥ ꓢꓲ ꓠꓬꓲ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓪꓴ‐ꓢ ꓚꓱ, ꓔꓯ ꓮ ꓘꓶ. ꓛꓲ ꓢꓷ. ꓢꓴ ꓥ ꓟ ꓪꓴ. ꓠꓬꓲ ꓕꓱ ꓙ ꓜꓲ ꓠꓲ, ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓔꓯ ꓪꓴ‐ꓢ ꓡꓰ ꓬꓲ ꓔꓯ ꓖꓶ ꓔ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓔꓯ ꓮꓠꓖꓰꓡ ꓳꓝ ꓔꓧꓰ ꓢꓚꓧꓳꓳꓡ ꓐꓰ ꓘꓴ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓔꓯ ꓠꓬ ꓮꓓ (1224) ꓘꓳꓼ ꓕꓯ ꓠꓮꓑꓡꓰꓢ ꓡꓳ ꓒꓱ ꓗꓪ ꓦꓵꓻ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓐ, ꓐ ꓠꓬ ꓶꓻ ꓡꓯ ꓬꓰ ꓒꓽ ꓓꓽ ꓕꓲ ꓣꓳ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓐ, ꓐ ꓢꓲ ꓟ, ꓟ ꓠꓬ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓒꓬꓱꓼ ꓡ ꓝꓲ ꓠꓲ, ꓫꓵˍ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓖꓳ ꓡꓰ ꓥ ꓟ ꓪꓴ. ꓠꓬꓲ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓐꓰꓠꓰꓓꓲꓚꓗ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓜꓴꓻ ꓗꓪ ꓔꓬ ꓝꓲ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿

ꓬꓲ ꓐ, ꓐ ꓟꓲ ꓠꓯ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓧꓪꓽ ꓖꓳ ꓓꓱ ꓡꓳ ꓬꓰ ꓗ. ꓠꓯ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓓꓳꓟꓲꓠꓲꓚꓮꓠ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓜꓴꓻ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓕꓲ ꓪ ꓒꓬꓱꓼ ꓡ ꓠ, ꓟ ꓓꓴ ꓙ ꓗꓷꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓔꓯ ꓬꓲ ꓪ ꓕꓲ ꓦꓲꓻ ꓢꓴ ꓐꓴ ꓠꓬ ꓕꓱ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓜꓴꓻ ꓗꓪ ꓟꓽ ꓙꓰ ꓠ, ꓟ ꓐꓯ ꓥ ꓟꓲ ꓬꓲ ꓟꓽ ꓠ ꓠ, ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓮQꓴꓲꓠꓮꓢ ꓠꓬ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓕꓲ ꓪ ꓒꓬꓱꓼ ꓗ. ꓠꓯ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓐꓲ‐ꓕꓲ ꓗꓴꓷꓼ ꓑꓮꓣꓲꓢ ꓡꓳ ꓒꓱ ꓗꓪ ꓙꓰ ꓢꓲ ꓟ. ꓒ ꓓꓽ ꓮ‐ꓐꓰꓣꓔ ꓟꓬꓱꓺ ꓔ ꓢꓴ ꓠꓯ, ꓗꓪ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓢꓳꓻ ꓣꓴ ꓗꓷꓳ꓿

ꓖꓳ ꓕꓲ ꓙꓵ, ꓗꓪ ꓮꓐꓰꓣꓔ ꓠꓬ ꓟꓲ ꓠꓯ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓔꓯ ꓓꓽ ꓡꓳ ꓬꓰ ꓢꓴ ꓟ. ꓒ ꓓꓽ ꓕꓲ ꓣꓳ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓑꓮꓓꓴꓮ ꓟꓴ ꓔꓲ. ꓢꓳꓻ ꓦꓲꓻ ꓗꓪ ꓟꓲ ꓠꓯ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓢꓳꓻ ꓔꓬ ꓟ ꓙꓵ, ꓕꓯ ꓓꓳꓟꓲꓠꓲꓚꓮꓠ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓜꓴꓻ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓛꓳ ꓒꓯꓽ ꓙꓳˍ ꓡꓰ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓖꓳ ꓗ. ꓠꓯ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ (1261) ꓘꓳꓼ ꓕꓯ ꓓꓳꓟꓲꓠꓚꓮꓠ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓜꓴꓻ ꓗꓪ ꓙ ꓡꓯ ꓘꓳ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓮQꓴꓲꓠꓮꓢ ꓠꓬ ꓟꓲ ꓠꓯ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓙꓵꓽ ꓪꓴ. ꓚꓴꓽ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓘꓳ, ꓣꓴ ꓟꓶ ꓢꓴ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓝꓮꓲ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓡꓳ ꓒꓱ ꓓꓽ ꓟꓴ ꓔꓲ. ꓢꓳꓻ ꓦꓲꓻ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓗꓪ ꓟꓲ ꓠꓯ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓔꓯ ꓢꓳꓻ ꓤ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓔꓯ ꓟ. ꓖꓶ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓖꓳ ꓡꓱ ꓥ ꓟ ꓪꓴ. ꓠꓬꓲ ꓬꓲ ꓔꓧꓰꓳꓡꓳꓖꓬ ꓪꓴ‐ꓢ ꓚꓱ, ꓔꓯ ꓟꓳ. ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓗꓪ ꓮ ꓘꓶ. ꓓꓽ ꓡꓳ ꓬꓰ ꓟ ꓕꓲ ꓪ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿

ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓮQꓴꓲꓠꓮꓢ ꓠꓬ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓕꓲ ꓪ ꓒꓬꓱꓼ ꓡ ꓗ. ꓠꓯ ꓑꓮꓣꓲꓢ ꓡꓳ ꓒꓱ ꓐꓰ ꓣꓳ‐ꓟ ꓡꓳ ꓒꓱ ꓓꓽ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓗꓪ ꓟꓲ ꓠꓯ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓐꓰ ꓪꓴ‐ꓢ ꓚꓱ, ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓔꓧꓰꓳꓡꓳꓖꓬ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓔꓯ ꓟꓳ. ꓖꓶ ꓗꓷꓳ꓿ ꓮꓓ(1261) ꓘꓳꓼ ꓕꓯ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓪ ꓔꓲ ꓴꓣꓐꓮꓠ (5) ꓡꓰ ꓬꓲ ꓕꓯ ꓣꓳ‐ꓟ ꓗꓪ ꓘꓴ ꓗꓷꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓔꓯ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓪ ꓔꓲ ꓔꓯ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓖꓶ ꓙ ꓢꓴ ꓟꓬꓱꓽ ꓬꓰ ꓠ, ꓟ (3) ꓘꓳꓼ ꓟꓬꓱꓽ ꓬꓰ ꓡꓳ ꓬꓰ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓖꓳ ꓕꓲ ꓙꓵ, ꓗꓪ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓢꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓬꓰ‐ꓢꓴ ꓬꓲ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓬꓲ ꓧꓪ ꓥ ꓟ ꓟꓲ‐ꓢ ꓛꓴ ꓔꓲ ꓟ ꓚꓱ, ꓐꓰ ꓢꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓬꓰ‐ꓢꓴ ꓧꓪ ꓖꓳ ꓓꓱ ꓢꓲꓽ ꓫꓬ ꓑ ꓑ ꓚꓱ, ꓔꓯ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓐꓳ ꓗꓷ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓝꓮꓲ ꓬꓲ ꓡꓰ ꓓꓳ ꓟꓴ ꓟꓴ ꓖꓪ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓔꓯ ꓥ ꓟꓲ ꓐꓳ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓠꓬ ꓮꓓ (1274) ꓘꓳꓼ ꓕꓯ ꓢꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓠꓯ, ꓗꓪ ꓬꓲꓼ ꓟꓶ ꓡꓰꓳ꓿

 ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓠꓬ ꓙꓵꓻ ꓠꓲ, ꓚꓱ, ꓔꓯ ꓟꓳ. ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓐꓷꓠ ꓐꓳ ꓗꓷꓳ꓿ ꓕꓱ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓟꓽ ꓔꓱ ꓟ ꓙꓵꓻ ꓠꓲ, ꓚꓱ, ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓗꓽ ꓕꓽ ꓓꓴ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓔꓯ ꓥ ꓟꓲ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓐꓳ ꓖꓶ ꓔ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ꓖꓳ ꓡꓰ ꓟꓽ ꓞꓲ ꓗ‐ꓔꓳ‐ꓡꓲꓗ ꓘꓴ ꓜꓲꓼ ꓞꓳ ꓠꓯ, ꓗꓪ ꓮ ꓡꓰ ꓐꓰ ꓙꓵꓻ ꓠꓲ, ꓔꓯ ꓗꓽ ꓕꓽ ꓠ, ꓟ ꓔꓧꓰꓳꓡꓳꓖꓬ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓑꓷꓠ (Summa Contra Gentiles) ꓟꓬꓱꓺ ꓔ ꓟ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓔꓯ ꓥ ꓟꓲ ꓐꓳ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿

ꓝꓮꓲ ꓘꓴ ꓜꓲꓼ ꓞꓳ ꓠꓯ, ꓗꓪ ꓙꓵꓻ ꓠꓲ, ꓚꓱ, ꓔꓯ ꓟꓳ ꓢꓽ ꓕꓱ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓐꓳ ꓔ ꓟ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓑꓷꓠ (ꓢꓴꓟꓟꓮ ꓔꓧꓰꓳꓡꓳꓖꓲꓚꓮ ) ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓠꓬ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓝꓮꓲ ꓓꓴ ꓙ ꓫꓱ ꓠꓬꓲ ꓓꓴ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓚꓱ, ꓑꓧꓰꓡꓳꓢꓳꓑꓧꓬ꓾ ꓝꓮꓲ ꓪꓴ‐ꓢ ꓚꓱ, ꓔꓯ ꓟꓳ ꓔꓧꓰꓳꓡꓳꓖꓬ ꓢꓷ. ꓠꓲ, ꓚꓱ, ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓔꓯ ꓥ ꓟꓲ ꓐꓳ ꓖꓶ ꓔ ꓢꓴ ꓥꓡꓳ꓿

ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓠꓬ ꓮ ꓕꓯ ꓥ ꓟꓲ ꓪꓽ ꓘꓴ ꓢꓴ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓢꓴ ꓕꓲ ꓣꓳ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ꓬꓲ ꓡꓰ ꓫ. ꓕꓱ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓗꓪ ꓬꓲ ꓡ ꓢꓲꓽ ꓫꓬ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓵꓻ ꓟ  ꓕꓯ ꓢꓲ ꓢꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓬꓰ‐ꓢꓴ ꓫꓵꓻ ꓙ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓡꓯ ꓐꓳ ꓔꓶ. ꓓꓴ ꓕꓯ ꓡꓳ. ꓠꓬꓲˍ ꓢꓲ ꓠꓬꓲ ꓪꓽ ꓘꓴ ꓢꓲ ꓠꓬꓲ ꓬꓲ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓐꓳ ꓟ ꓗꓪ ꓪꓴ‐ꓢ ꓡꓰ ꓡꓯ ꓫꓴꓻ ꓖꓶ ꓡ ꓟ ꓗꓪ ꓐꓰ ꓐꓳ ꓐ ꓡ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ ꓐꓰ ꓐꓯ ꓔ ꓡꓳ꓿

ꓚꓺ ꓟꓲꓽ ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓗꓪ ꓢꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓬꓰ‐ꓢꓴ ꓡꓰ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓔꓯ ꓠꓴ ꓠꓬ ꓥꓪ ꓚꓱ, ꓕꓳ ꓶ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓐꓳ ꓗꓷ ꓟ ꓪꓴ. ꓠꓬꓲ ꓮ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓡꓯ ꓫꓴꓻ ꓔꓯ ꓠꓴ ꓡ ꓐꓰ ꓠꓻ ꓠꓬꓲˍ ꓕꓯ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓡꓰ ꓮ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓡꓯ ꓫꓴꓻ ꓔꓯ ꓥ ꓟꓲ ꓟꓽ ꓠꓲ,  ꓫꓵˍ ꓢꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓠꓴ ꓔꓯ ꓡꓰ ꓪ ꓠꓲ, ꓫꓵˍ ꓡꓳ ꓐꓰ ꓐꓳ ꓔ ꓟ ꓙꓳˍ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿ ꓮꓓ (1923) ꓘꓳꓼ ꓕꓯ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓪ ꓔꓲ ꓑꓲꓴꓢ (11) ꓠꓬ ꓬꓲ ꓔꓯ ꓔꓧꓰ ꓓꓳꓚꓔꓳꓣ ꓚꓳꓟꓟꓴꓠꓲꓢ ꓐꓰ ꓟꓬꓱꓺ ꓓꓳꓽ ꓖꓶ ꓒꓵꓽ ꓗꓽ ꓬꓰ ꓗꓷꓳ꓿ ꓬꓲ ꓡꓰ ꓐꓳ ꓔ ꓟ ꓮ ꓟꓬ, ꓔꓯ ꓠꓬꓲ. ꓠꓬꓲ ꓗ‐ꓔꓳ‐ꓡꓲꓗ ꓘꓴ ꓜꓲꓼ ꓞꓳ ꓠꓬ ꓣꓱ ꓔꓬ ꓟ ꓥ ꓡꓳ꓿

ꓬꓲ ꓢꓯ. ꓔꓬ ꓟ ꓙꓵ, ꓕꓯ ꓙꓲꓻ ꓫꓬ ꓔꓧꓳꓟꓮꓢ ꓠꓬ ꓮ ꓘꓶ. ꓛꓲ ꓟꓬꓱꓺ ꓓꓳꓽ ꓙꓳˍ ꓢꓴ ꓔꓲꓺ ꓒ ꓕꓲ ꓣꓳ ꓥ ꓥ ꓡ

 

                   

 

 

 

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